High Voltage EIS Test System

  Gamry introduces the new LPI1010 a high voltage test system for Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) up to 20kHz. This new instrument offers advantages to researchers who wish to study electrodes and mechanisms in batteries, fuel cells and electrolyzers. Vehicle electrification requires changes in how batteries and fuel cells are tested. The need continues to Read more about High Voltage EIS Test System[…]

Quartz Crystal Microbalance Instruments Which Include Impedance and Dissipation

MicroVacuum’s Quartz Crystal Microbalance Instruments

Gamry Announces Exclusive Distribution of MicroVacuum’s Quartz Crystal Microbalance Instruments Which Include Impedance and Dissipation Philadelphia, PA, September 6, 2018.   Gamry Instruments of Warminster, PA is pleased to announce a strategic partnership with MicroVacuum of Budapest, Hungary.  The agreement awards Gamry exclusive distribution of their Quartz Crystal Microbalance instruments. This line of QCMs includes 3 Read more about MicroVacuum’s Quartz Crystal Microbalance Instruments[…]

High-current Pulses for Battery Research

Introduction For those interested in determining the characteristics of batteries, especially by discharging them to see their changes in impedance, Gamry Instruments offers the Reference™ 3000 potentiostat plus our 30k Booster. This combination of instruments is useful for running stress tests on batteries, by applying rapid, high-current pulses singly or repeatedly. As a cell, we Read more about High-current Pulses for Battery Research[…]

A Faraday Cage & Ambient Light Elimination Box

What’s New at Gamry Instruments?

Gamry has added a new Optical Shield to their updated IMPS/IMVS System.  The new Optical Shield doubles as both a Faraday Cage and ambient light elimination box. This new accessory is available as a stand-alone purchase, and also comes with the complete IMPS/IMVS System. In addition, they have made it easier to get set up Read more about What’s New at Gamry Instruments?[…]

What is Nyquist?

Until a couple of weeks ago, many people may not have even heard of Nyquist.  However, if you are an electrochemist the name Nyquist has a meaning unknown to many. The Nyquist frequency is named after electronic engineer Harry Nyquist.   Harry Nyquist was a Swedish-born American electronic engineer who made important contributions to ‘communication theory’ Read more about What is Nyquist?[…]

Hydrodynamic Working Electrode

Rotating Disk Electrode

Hydrodynamic Working Electrode

A rotating disk electrode (RDE) is a hydrodynamic working electrode used in a three electrode system. The electrode rotates during experiments making a constant flux of analyte to the electrode. These working electrodes are used in electrochemical applications such as corrosion studies, fuel cell research, […]

Faraday Cage - How does it work

What is a Faraday Cage? How does it work?

Michael Faraday’s studies and experiments regarding charge, magnetism found that charge on a conductor resided only on the outer surface. He also discovered that nothing inside that conductor was affected by any change in electrical charge on the outside. Faraday believed that an electric field extended into space beyond a charge. We now know that Read more about What is a Faraday Cage? How does it work?[…]

electrochemistry in an autoclave

Electrochemistry in an Autoclave

Contributed by Dr. Jim Hardy



When I sit down to write about tricks of the trade and lessons learned in the practice of performing electrochemistry in autoclaves, my first thought is of all of those who preceded me in the adventure. This is only a partial and personal list: They are the researchers, facility engineers, supervisors, and technicians at Bettis and Knolls who paved the way. Some names that come to mind are Rick Garstka, Ted Druga, Bert Setterberg, Rudy Majcher, Jack Carr, Bob Rubino, Doug Thompson, Ken Granger, Rosemary Janik, Bill Archer, Garry Lynch, Irene Rosati, Mike Ochap, Dave Kedzierski, Keith Eklund, George Halbfinger, Mike Danielson, Yinfang Wang. Chief among those in other organizations who shared their stories was Digby Macdonald, who broke ground for many of us and was always eager to share his experiences.

Scope and Intent

This note will cover many topics that have only hot water in common. To fit within the space limitations of an application note, it will be a collection of lessons learned. As such, none of this is purely my own. There will be a stream of consciousness or memory and no part will be comprehensive. There may be future, detailed application notes to cover particular situations in depth, but they will await the questions that we hope this note will stimulate.



The EQCM: electrogravimetry with a light touch

The EQCM: electrogravimetry with a light touch

Article now available at Springer by A. Robert Hillman   Abstract In its simplest manifestation, the electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM) is a relatively new device for executing a classical technique, electrogravimetry. The advantages it brought were in situ applicability (notwithstanding prior misconceptions regarding damping by a contacting fluid), exceptional sensitivity and dynamic capability, thereby Read more about The EQCM: electrogravimetry with a light touch[…]

Care of Vycor® Porous Glass Frits

Porous Glass Frit Glass

Care of Porous Glass Frits

Porous Glass is often used at the end of a reference electrode or a bridge tube to allow electrical, ionic conductivity between the bulk of the solution and the internal filling solution, while preventing large scale convective mixing of the solutions. Porous Glass, or “thirsty glass” is a porous glass with a fairly low leak rate.

The Porous Glass frits, however, are not immortal!

To preserve their useful lifetime, they should be kept wet. If they are allowed to dry out, solid crystals can clog the narrow pores and increase the electrical resistance. In extreme cases, the Porous Glass can crack upon drying out.

When not in use, the reference electrode or bridge tube can be stored with the Porous Glass frit immersed in distilled water. Diffusion through the Porous Glass is fairly slow, and the internal filling solution will not be diluted, even upon a few weeks of storage.

An alternative is to replace the small plastic cap that was in place when the reference electrode was shipped.

Replacing a Porous Glass Frit


There is a description of potentiostat stability (written by DK Roe) in the Kissinger & Heineman book (

A Basic Understanding of iR Compensation

Some of the most common technical questions we hear have to do with iR compensation —

Dr. Bobs basic understanding of iR compensation.

  1. Where does uncompensated iR come from?
  2. Do I need to use iR compensation with my experiment?
  3. How should I set up the iR compensation parameters?
  4. Why doesn’t iR compensation work on my system?

In this post we’ll attempt to answer these questions and to give you a basic understanding of iR compensation.


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